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Cristo cura al ciego

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      2. <dc:description xml:lang="en">El Greco painted this masterpiece of dramatic storytelling either in Venice or in Rome, where he worked after leaving Crete in 1567 and before moving to Spain in 1576. It illustrates the Gospel account of Christ healing a blind man by anointing his eyes. The two figures in the foreground may be the blind man’s parents. The upper left portion of the composition is unfinished. El Greco painted two other versions of the subject, and seems to have taken this one with him to Spain. First recorded in 1888 as the work of Tintoretto and later ascribed to Veronese, this painting was only recognized as the work of El Greco in 1958: of his three versions of this subject, it is the only one not signed. It is the largest of the three, being more than twice the size of the painting in the Galleria Nazionale in Parma and about the same size as The Purification of the Temple in Minneapolis, with which it must be more or less contemporary. It is also the most sketchy in execution and is, indeed, unfinished, in particular the circular temple and the back row of heads at the left, two of which are no more than blocked in. The two seated figures in the middle ground are so thinly painted that the pavement is visible through them. (While El Greco painted the pavement around the two principal figure groups, the secondary figures, including the two bust-length figures in the foreground, as well as parts of the architecture were painted over it.) El Greco's interpretation of the miracle represents a synthesis of the three Gospel accounts of it. As Christ leaves the Temple, he encounters two blind men and restores their sight by touching their eyes. One is shown from the back, gesturing upwards in excitement, while the other kneels before Christ, who anoints his eye. To the right are the neighbors and Pharisees who objected to Christ healing "a man blind from his birth" on the Sabbath; the two bust-length figures in the foreground may be the parents of the blind man, summoned to confirm that their son had, indeed, been born blind. In effect, the picture transforms the biblical narrative into an exegesis of Christ's divine powers. In this it is very unlike earlier depictions or, indeed, such contemporary works as Livio Agresti's altarpiece of the same subject in Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome. By comparison to the version of the subject in the Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, the groups of figures are better articulated and the diminution of the figures in space is more accentuated. The figure of the gesturing blind man has been added, his pose evidently taken from an engraving by Giulio Bonasone after a design by Perino del Vaga for Saints John and Peter Healing at the Golden Gate, and a circular temple has been introduced (this detail may derive from Taddeo Zuccaro's fresco of Saint Paul Healing the Cripple in San Marcello al Corso, Rome). The two bust-length figures in the foreground, who occupy a lower space, may reflect Francesco Salviati's fresco of 1538 in the Oratory of San Giovanni Decollato in Venice, though analogies for their poses have also been found in an engraving of The Birth of the Virgin from the school of Marcantonio Raimondi and in a print of The Nativity by Parmigianino. Until recently there was a consensus of opinion that the MMA canvas was the latest of the three treatments of the subject and possibly dated from El Greco's first years in Spain. The picture was certainly known there, as two Spanish copies of it exist. Moreover, the brilliant palette recalls that of The Assumption of the Virgin commissioned in 1577 for the high altar of Santo Domingo in Toledo. However, in 1991 Vechnyak made a compelling case for dating the MMA canvas between the Dresden and Parma pictures, and her arguments have been taken up by a number of scholars, notably Held and Schütz. Certainly, the Parma picture contains many more references to Roman pictorial and architectural traditions and also adopts a more subdued palette. The MMA canvas may represent El Greco's initial response to Rome—a response that was quickly superseded by a more intimate knowledge of Roman practice. That might explain why the picture was never brought to conclusion. In this case, the unfinished canvas might have been kept by the artist and taken to Spain, where the two copies were surely made. But another possibility is that the absence of some of the most Roman features found in the Parma version denote a reaffirmation by El Greco of his sympathies for Venetian art and may reflect a return trip to Venice following an unsuccessful bid for patronage in Rome. Such a second Venetian trip, first proposed by Zottmann in 1906–7, has been repeatedly argued by Puppi. However, the contacts for his first major commissions in Toledo seem to have originated in the circle of Fulvio Orsini in Rome—not in Venice—and suggest El Greco's continued presence in the papal city.</dc:description>

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      12. <dc:title xml:lang="es">Cristo cura al ciego</dc:title>

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      14. <dcterms:alternative xml:lang="en">The Miracle of Christ Healing the Blind</dcterms:alternative>

      15. <dcterms:created>1570</dcterms:created>

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      2. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Domenico Theotocopouli‏</skos:altLabel>

      3. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Domenico Theotokopoulos</skos:altLabel>

      4. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Domenico Theotokopuli El Greco</skos:altLabel>

      5. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Tehocopopuli, Domenico‏</skos:altLabel>

      6. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος</skos:altLabel>

      7. <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Doménikos Theotokópoulos</skos:altLabel>

      8. <skos:note xml:lang="es">**Doménikos Theotokópoulos**, en griego Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος (Candía, 1541 – Toledo, 1614), conocido como **el Greco** («el griego»), fue un pintor del final del Renacimiento que desarrolló un estilo muy personal en sus obras de madurez. Hasta los 26 años vivió en Creta, donde fue un apreciado maestro de iconos en el estilo posbizantino vigente en la isla. Después residió diez años en Italia, donde se transformó en un pintor renacentista, primero en Venecia, asumiendo plenamente el estilo de Tiziano y Tintoretto, y después en Roma, estudiando el manierismo de Miguel Ángel. En 1577 se estableció en Toledo (España), donde vivió y trabajó el resto de su vida. Su formación pictórica fue compleja, obtenida en tres focos culturales muy distintos: su primera formación bizantina fue la causante de importantes aspectos de su estilo que florecieron en su madurez; la segunda la obtuvo en Venecia de los pintores del alto renacimiento, especialmente de Tiziano, aprendiendo la pintura al óleo y su gama de colores —él siempre se consideró parte de la escuela veneciana—; por último, su estancia en Roma le permitió conocer la obra de Miguel Ángel y el manierismo, que se convirtió en su estilo vital, interpretado de una forma autónoma. Su obra se compone de grandes lienzos para retablos de iglesias, numerosos cuadros de devoción para instituciones religiosas -en los que a menudo participó su taller- y un grupo de retratos considerados del máximo nivel. En sus primeras obras maestras españolas se aprecia la influencia de sus maestros italianos. Sin embargo, pronto evolucionó hacia un estilo personal caracterizado por sus figuras manieristas extraordinariamente alargadas con iluminación propia, delgadas, fantasmales, muy expresivas, en ambientes indefinidos y una gama de colores buscando los contrastes. Este estilo se identificó con el espíritu de la Contrarreforma y se fue extremando en sus últimos años. Actualmente está considerado uno de los artistas más grandes de la civilización occidental. Esta alta consideración es reciente y se ha ido formando en los últimos cien años, cambiando la apreciación sobre su pintura formada en los dos siglos y medio que siguieron a su muerte, en que llegó a considerarse un pintor excéntrico y marginal en la historia del arte.</skos:note>

      9. <dc:date>1560</dc:date>

      10. <dc:date>1614</dc:date>

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